is repeating the same actions over & over expecting different results














10 year or 10,000 hour rule


"It takes 10 years of extensive training to excel in anything." Herbert Simon - Nobel Laureate

(Ericsson & Charness,1994 & Salmela et al., 1999)



For the athlete & coach this translates as slightly more then 3 hours of deliberate practice daily for 10 years.










Paradigm Shifts in Coaching



        Transfer of strength & power

        Fitness, strength, movement

        Early specialisation

        Coaching the developmental athlete

        Coaching the elite athlete

        Coaching the female athlete

        Coaching the elite athlete - the diminishing returns phase


        Regeneration & recovery

        Sleep & sleep research

        The "Gears of Training & Performance"











Long Term Planning

(See 10 year rule)


A 5 stage model for late specialisation sports



        Training to Train

        Training to Compete

        Training to Win

        Retirement / Retainment












Long-term Athlete Development - British Columbia

(Istvan Balyi, Ph.D., and Anne E Hamilton, MPE)




Chronological / Biological Age

Male & female: 6-10


        FUN & participation

        General, overall development

        Athleticism: ABC's of running, jumping & throwing

        ABC's of movement. Agility, balance, coordination & speed

        Speed power & endurance through FUN & games

        Proper running, jumping & throwing technique

        Medicine ball, Swiss ball & own body exercises for strength

        Introduction to simple rules & ethics of sport.






NO periodization, but well structured programs


        Sport participation 5-6 times per week


Training to Train


Biological Age

Male: 10-14 Female:10-13


        Emphasis on general physical conditioning

        Shoulder, elbow, core, spine & ankle stability

        FUNdamental technical skills progressively more specific skills towards the end of the stage

        FUNdamentals of tactical preparation

        Participation in complementary sports (similar energy system & movement pattern requirements)

        Individualization of fitness & technical training

        Introduction to memtal preparation

        FUNdamentals of ancillary capacities



Single Perodization


        Sport specific training 4 times per week, with participation in other sports


Training to Compete


Chronological / Biological Age

Male:14-18 Female:13-17


        Sport & individual specific physical conditioning

        Shoulder, elbow, core, spine & ankle stability

        Sport-specific technical & playing skills under competitive conditions

        Advanced tactical preparation

        Individualization of technical-tactical skins

        Advanced mental preparation

        Sport & individual specific ancillary capacities








Double or Multiple Periodization


        Sport-specific technical tactical & fitness training 6-9 times per week


Training to Win


Chronological Age

Male: 18+ Female: 17+


        Maintenance (or possible improvement) of physical capacities

        Shoulder, elbow, core, spine & ankle stability

        Further development of technical, tactical & playing skills

        Modelling all possible aspects of training & performance

        Frequent prophylactic breaks

        All aspects of training


        Develop further ancillary capacities (there is no ceiling limit)








Triple or Multiple periodization


        Sport-specific technical, tactical & fitness training 9-12 times per week















Improvised Alternative Training Session

(Balyi, 1992)


        Session planned = A
After warm-up athletes look sluggish, slow, tired, technique is breaking up

        Revise training content, since due to residual fatigue no training adaptation will take place

        Train something less demanding



Planned Alternative Training Session

(Balyi, 1992)


        Session Planned = A
Testing (field or lab)

        Identify trainability or trainable factors:
If not A= speed or skill;
B = power
C = strength
D = endurance
E = aerobic recovery
F = recovery / regeneration
G= call ambulance






Trainability Tips


        Qualities that cannot be improved in a state of fatigue:
Pure speed
Acquisition / refinement of new motor skills (technique)
Maximal strength


        Qualities that can be improved in a state of low fatigue:
speed-endurance (lactic power)
skill (if the objective is to stabilize technical skills under a variety of conditions)


        Qualities that can be improved in a state of moderate fatigue
Lactic capacity
Aerobic power
Aerobic capacity
Skill (if the objective is to stabilize technical skills under a variety of conditions, i.e. simulating final minutes of a match, etc.)


        Qualities that can be improved in a state of moderate to high fatigue
aerobic capacity
Flexibility (?)



Planning - The Process


Headings from documentation accompanying ProPulses Training program management software (Isvan Balyi & Alain Marion)


1. Determine the demands of the event

2. Assess the athlete(s)

3. Evaluate last year's program

4. Set general goals & objectives for the new program

5. Identify the events of the new program

6. Determine the type of periodization used in your program

7. Determine the duration of the competition periods

8. Determine the duration of the transition periods

9. Determine the duration of the preparation periods

10.     Determine the phases of each period of your program

11.     Determine the importance of key performance factors throughout the plan

12.     Determine the expected progression of the workload throughout the plan

13.     Re-assess previous steps

14.     Determine the meso & microcycle planning structure of the plan

15.     Design the training sessions of the first microcycle








Planning & Evaluation

Bent Arrow: New Plan


























Optimal Trainability























Age 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18


Height Velocity Curve


PSV = Peak Speed Velocity

PMCV = Peak Motor Control Velocity

ABCs = Agility, Balance, Coordination, Speed

PAV = Peak Aerobic Velocity

PSrV = Peak Strength Velocity